The Human Relations Movements.

1- Elton Mayo is the founder of the human relations movements.
2- Elton Mayo against Fredrick Taylor.
3- What is the effect of illumination on work productivity?
4- The social factors affect on the physical factors.

1- Elton Mayo the founder the human relations movements.

- The first studies made in O.B were the scientific management. The second studies in O.B field are the human relations movements. Many employees & theorists alike rejected taylorism, favoring instead an approach that focused on employee's own views & emphasized respect for individuals.
- Elton Mayo "an organizational scientists & the founder of what's called the human relations movements".

2- Elton Mayo against Fredrick Taylor.

- Elton Mayo recognized the importance of social process in work settings. This philosophy rejects the scientific management & focuses instead on noneconomic, social factors operating in the work place. Mayo and other proponents of the human relations movements noticed that performance of employees influenced by social conditions which existed in organizations, the way they were treated by the management & the relationships they had with each other.

3- What is the effect of illumination on work productivity?

- In 1927, a series of studies was begun at the western electric's Hawthorne works near Chicago. The researchers were interested in determining the effects if illumination on work productivity.

- two groups of female employees took part in the study, the first group is the control room condition, did their jobs without any changes in lighting; the other group is the test room condition worked while the lighting was systematically varied, the results were baffling: productivity increased in both locations; output in the test room remained high even when the level of illumination was so low.

- Mayo & his colleagues examined the effects of wide variety of different variables on productivity such as the duration of the work day & work week, the presence or absence of free midmorning lunch.

The result that the productivity improved with every change in work conditions. In fact performance remained high even when conditions were returned to normal.

4- The Social factors affect on physical factors.

- Mayo & his associates recognized that the answer resided in the fact that organizations are social systems. People worked depend not on the physical aspects of their working conditions, but also on the social conditions that prevailed.

- He noticed that employers when they motive the employees to do their best; employees increase their productivity it was social factors which have more effect on employees more than physical factors.

- In other studies employers raised the amount of work employees expected to do each day. Employees agreed among themselves to keep output low. So the social factors affected on the physical factors & make them decrease the output level. These results clear the importance of human needs, attitudes, motives, & relationships in the workplace.


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