Changing in the workforce & its effect on O.B.

1- Changing The Nature Of Work.
2- A Capsule History Of The Field.
3- Scientific Management Approach.
4- Taylor's ideas are applied Today.
5- Some Scientists who Expand Taylor's ideas.

1- Changing the nature of work.

- If we had to characterize today's work force using only one word. It would be diversity. For example there are more women working today than ever before, and they are more highly educated for wider variety of positions. In addition to gender diversity.
- Racial & cultural diversity is another potent demographic trend in the workforce. The relative proportion of white Native Americans in the workforce has been shrinking as growing numbers of Hispanic Americans, African American, Asian Americans, and foreign nationals enter the workforce. Computer technology had made it possible for people to do more work with less effort.
- The world of work is changing in many ways. With theses changes came a variety of interesting issues and special challenges for the field of organizational behavior.

2- A Capsule History Of The Field.

- Many trials made in studying O.B to improve worker productivity. The most important questions want to answer is what could be done to get people to do more work in less time?
- Frederick Winslow Taylor "the founder of the scientific management movement"
Worked most of his life in steel mills, starting as a laborer and working his way up to position of chief engineer.
- In the 1880s, Taylor became aware of the inefficient practices of the employees. For example, Taylor notice that laborers wasted movements when shifting pig iron, Taylor studied the individual components of this task & established what he believed was the best way motion by motion to perform it. Then Taylor redesigned the jobs of loading & unloading rail cars so they too could be done as efficiently as possible.
- After that Taylor published his book "Scientific Management" in this book Taylor explained that the objective of management is to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity of each employee.

3- Scientific Management Approach.

- An early approach to management & organizational behavior emphasizing the importance of designing jobs as efficiently as possible.

4- Taylor's Ideas are applied Today.

- Taylor advocated two ideas that hardly seem special today but were quite new 85 years old.
a- He recommended that employees be carefully selected & trained to perform their jobs- helping him become, in his words, " first- class" at same task.
b- He believed that increasing wages would raise worker's motivation & make them more productive.

5- Some Scientists who Expand Taylor's ideas.

- Peter Ducker has described Taylor as "the first man in his Tory who didn't take work for granted, but who looked at it & studied it.
- After publishing scientific management book, several other scientists appeared to expand Taylor's ideas. For example the Psy Chologist Hugo Munsterberg worked to "humanize" the jobs of people by explaining how the concepts of learning & motivation are relevant to the behavior of people at work.
- Management writer Mary Parker Follet claimed that organizations could benefit by attempting to recognize the needs of employees..
- Frank & Lillian Gilbreth. This husband and wife team pioneered an approach knows as time- and- motion study, a type of applied research designed to classify & streamline the individual movements needed to perform jobs, with the intent of finding the most efficient way of doing them.

                                        TO BE CONTINUED

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